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Hod
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PostHod on Thu Mar 26, 2015 8:50 am

This is the Answer to all the groups for ND one in Science Laboratory Department

Group B
1. What is input devices?
2. Identification of various devices that serves as input and output devices in the computer and their images.

Answers

INPUT DEVICES
An input device converts incoming data and instructions into a pattern of electrical signals in binary code that are comprehensible to a digital computer. An output device reverses the process, translating the digitized signals into a form intelligible to the user. At one time punched-card and paper-tape readers were extensively used for inputting, but these have now been supplanted by more efficient devices.
Input devices include typewriter-like keyboards; handheld devices such as the mouse, trackball, joystick, and special pen with pressure-sensitive pad; and microphones. They also include sensors that provide information about their environment—temperature, pressure, and so forth—to a computer. Another direct-entry mechanism is the optical laser scanner (e.g., scanners used with point-of-sale terminals in retail stores) that can read bar-coded data or optical character fonts.



INPUT DEVICES AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

KEYBOARD

The computer keyboard is used to enter text information into the computer, as when you type the contents of a report. The keyboard can also be used to type commands directing the computer to perform certain actions. Commands are typically chosen from an on-screen menu using a mouse, but there are often keyboard shortcuts for giving these same commands.
In addition to the keys of the main keyboard (used for typing text), keyboards usually also have a numeric keypad (for entering numerical data efficiently), a bank of editing keys (used in text editing operations), and a row of function keys along the top (to easily invoke certain program functions). Laptop computers, which don’t have room for large keyboards, often include a “fn” key so that other keys can perform double duty (such as having a numeric keypad function embedded within the main keyboard keys).
Improper use or positioning of a keyboard can lead to repetitive-stress injuries. Some ergonomic keyboards are designed with angled arrangements of keys and with built-in wrist rests that can minimize your risk of RSIs.
Most keyboards attach to the PC via a PS/2 connector or USB port (newer). Older Macintosh computers used an ABD connector, but for several years now all Mac keyboards have connected using USB.

MOUSE

The mouse pointing device sits on your work surface and is moved with your hand. In older mice, a ball in the bottom of the mouse rolls on the surface as you move the mouse, and internal rollers sense the ball movement and transmit the information to the computer via the cord of the mouse.

JOYSTICK

Joysticks and other game controllers can also be connected to a computer as pointing devices. They are generally used for playing games, and not for controlling the on-screen cursor in productivity software.

SCANNER



A scanner is a device that images a printed page or graphic by digitizing it, producing an image made of tiny pixels of different brightness and color values which are represented numerically and sent to the computer. Scanners scan graphics, but they can also scan pages of text which are then run through OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software that identifies the individual letter shapes and creates a text file of the page's contents.

MICROPHONE

A microphone, colloquially mic or mike is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound in air into anelectrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.


OUTPUT DEVICES AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

MONITOR

The traditional output device of a personal computer has been the CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitor. Just like a television set (an older one, anyway) the CRT monitor contains a large cathode ray tube that uses an electron beam of varying strength to “paint” a picture onto the color phosphorescent dots on the inside of the screen. CRT monitors are heavy and use more electrical power than flat panel displays, but they are preferred by some graphic artists for their accurate color rendition, and preferred by some gamers for faster response to rapidly changing graphics.
Monitor screen size is measured diagonally across the screen, in inches. Not all of the screen area may be usable for image display, so the viewable area is also specified. The resolutionof the monitor is the maximum number of pixels it can display horizontally and vertically (such as 800 x 600, or 1024 x 768, or 1600 x 1200). Most monitors can display several resolutions below its maximum setting. Pixels (short for picture elements) are the small dots that make of the image displayed on the screen. The spacing of the screen’s tiny phosphor dots is called the dot pitch (dp), typically .28 or .26 (measured in millimeters). A screen with a smaller dot pitch produces sharper images

SPEAKER

A full-range loudspeaker drive unit is defined as a driver which reproduces as much of the audible frequency range as possible, within the limitations imposed by the physical constraints of a specific design. The frequency range of these drives is maximized through the use of a whizzer cone and other means. Most single driver systems, such as those in radios, or small computer speaker designs, cannot reproduce the entire audio range.


PRINTER
For hardcopy (printed) output, you need some kind of printer attached to your computer (or available over a network). The most common type of printer for home systems is the color ink jet printer. These printers form the image on the page by spraying tiny droplets of ink from the print head. The printer needs several colors of ink (cyan, yellow, magenta, and black) to make color images. Some photo-quality ink jet printers have more colors of ink.


PROJECTOR

A projector or image projector is an optical device that projects an image (or moving images) onto a surface, commonly a projection screen.
Most projectors create an image by shining a light through a small transparent lens, but some newer types of projectors can project the image directly, by using lasers. A virtual retinal display, or retinal projector, is a projector that projects an image directly on the retina instead of using an external projection screen.
The most common type of projector used today is called a video projector. Video projectors are digital replacements for earlier types of projectors such as slide projectors and overhead projectors. These earlier types of projectors were mostly replaced with digital video projectors throughout the 1990s and early 2000s (decade), but old analog projectors are still used at some places. The newest types of projectors are handheld projectors that use lasers or LEDs to project images. Their projections are hard to see if there is too much ambient light.
Movie theaters use a type of projector called a movie projector. Another type of projector is the enlarger, a device used to produce photographic prints from negatives.


Last edited by HOD on Thu Mar 26, 2015 9:40 am; edited 1 time in total
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Hod
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PostHod on Thu Mar 26, 2015 9:23 am

This is the Answer to all the groups for ND one in Science Laboratory Department


Question for the Group C
1. What is Output Device
2. Draw and label the output devices
3. Draw the main component of Linux Operating System
4. Draw the Unit Operating System




ANSWERS
An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) which converts the electronically generated information into human-readable form.


OUTPUT DEVICES AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS
MONITOR


The traditional output device of a personal computer has been the CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitor. Just like a television set (an older one, anyway) the CRT monitor contains a large cathode ray tube that uses an electron beam of varying strength to “paint” a picture onto the color phosphorescent dots on the inside of the screen. CRT monitors are heavy and use more electrical power than flat panel displays, but they are preferred by some graphic artists for their accurate color rendition, and preferred by some gamers for faster response to rapidly changing graphics.


SPEAKER


A full-range loudspeaker drive unit is defined as a driver which reproduces as much of the audible frequency range as possible, within the limitations imposed by the physical constraints of a specific design. The frequency range of these drives is maximized through the use of a whizzer cone and other means. Most single driver systems, such as those in radios, or small computer speaker designs, cannot reproduce the entire audio range.



PRINTER


For hardcopy (printed) output, you need some kind of printer attached to your computer (or available over a network). The most common type of printer for home systems is the color ink jet printer. These printers form the image on the page by spraying tiny droplets of ink from the print head. The printer needs several colors of ink (cyan, yellow, magenta, and black) to make color images. Some photo-quality ink jet printers have more colors of ink.


PROJECTOR
A projector or image projector is an optical device that projects an image (or moving images) onto a surface, commonly a projection screen.
Most projectors create an image by shining a light through a small transparent lens, but some newer types of projectors can project the image directly, by using lasers. A virtual retinal display, or retinal projector, is a projector that projects an image directly on the retina instead of using an external projection screen.
The most common type of projector used today is called a video projector. Video projectors are digital replacements for earlier types of projectors such as slide projectors and overhead projectors. These earlier types of projectors were mostly replaced with digital video projectors throughout the 1990s and early 2000s (decade), but old analog projectors are still used at some places. The newest types of projectors are handheld projectors that use lasers or LEDs to project images. Their projections are hard to see if there is too much ambient light.
Movie theaters use a type of projector called a movie projector. Another type of projector is the enlarger, a device used to produce photographic prints from negatives.

3. DIAGRAM OF THE MAIN COMPONENT OF A LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM








4. DIAGRAM OF UNIT OPERATING SYSTEM




good post
Javacop
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PostJavacop on Thu Mar 26, 2015 11:38 am

wow! Thats good explanation but u didnt give the obe for group A?
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